EPOCH OF FORMATION OF ELITE UNIVERSITY
On January 5, 2015, 75 years old Valentyn Petrovych Chernykh – Rector of the National University of Pharmacy, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology, Doctor of Pharmacy, Doctor of Chemistry, Professor reached the age of 75 years. Year 2015 is significant for Valentyn Petrovych by the fact that it marks the 50th anniversary of his scientific-pedagogical and social activities, and 35 years as the Rector. Half a century of his life is given to the noble mission – training of specialists for the pharmaceutical industry, training of scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff, reconstruction and reorganization of the National University of Pharmacy, the main pharmaceutical higher education institution in Ukraine with history dating back to the distant year 1805, reforming of the higher pharmaceutical education and pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine.
Today the National University of Pharmacy is a reputable institution of higher education, known not only in Ukraine, but also abroad. Powerful breakthrough from a small Institute to the elite university was realized over the past few decades, when the University was headed by its current Rector. Congratulating V.P. Chernykh on the remarkable date, we want to recollect the history of formation and development of the professional sectoral education and its flagship – the National University of Pharmacy.
Pharmaceutical education in the pre-revolutionary period
Beginning of the higher pharmaceutical education in the Kharkiv region goes back to 1805, when Kharkiv Imperial University was opened. The same year, Scientific Council of the Medical Faculty received the right to conduct exams for pharmaceutical title and confer the degrees of gezel (apothecary assistant), pharmacist and chemist based on their results. In 1812, was opened pharmaceutical laboratory on the base of the chemical laboratory of the University, allowing students and persons who were preparing for the exam for pharmaceutical title gain knowledge in Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy, Forensic Analysis, etc.
In 1837, under the Charter of Kharkiv University there was opened the Department of materia medica, pharmacy and medical literature, two decades later they were divided into the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy and Department of Pharmacology.
Since the mid-1880s, there were conducted regular Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy classes for medical students in the laboratory, there was significantly expanded the program of practical training of pharmacists who attended lectures for the title of pharmacist. Professional knowledge was passed on to students by outstanding scientists – Professor F.I. Gize, Ye.S. Gordiienko, Ya.M. Gromov, G.G. Korritari. Practical training in Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy was given one hour per week.
By 1903, pharmaceutical laboratory had its own library with 346 volumes of books, 1,029 different devices and equipment, herbarium, pharmacognostic collection, four collections of microscopic preparations, two mineralogical collections and two collections of pharmaceuticals. The laboratory property was assessed at 11,269 rubles.
In 1883, new “Regulations on the examination of medical, veterinary and pharmaceutical officials” were issued, according to which it was necessary to attend two-year theoretical course of lectures on special subjects and pass a state exam for the title of pharmacy assistant and pharmacist. This system of training of pharmacists existed till 1920.
Opening of the branch Institute
In the 1920s, consequences of severe political convulsions manifested themselves: there was dominating devastation, famine, raged diseases. Therefore, it is understandable that the new government has identified the need to restore and strengthen the system of medical care of the population as one of its priorities. Of course, it was impossible to do this without the training of qualified personnel.
In 1921, the first in Ukraine Pharmaceutical Institute was opened in the capital Kharkiv by Resolution the People’s Commissariat of Health and Chief Directorate of Science. The initiator of the opening was its first rector M.O. Valiashko. At the Institute duration of study for pharmacists was three years, and for specialists in chemical analysis and manufacturers of chemical and pharmaceutical industry – four. The Institute trained: highly qualified pharmacists of pharmacy profile, research specialists in food and taste qualities of substances, household consumption products and specialists in forensic chemical analysis, workers for chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Educational process at the Institute was carried out by renowned scientists of the industry – M.O. Valiashko, A.D. Rozenfeld, Ya.M. Zilber, M.P. Krasovskyi.
There were submitted 154 applications for admission to the Institute in the first year of its existence. After colloquium, there were enrolled 93 people, 67 of which have already had experience of work in pharmacies. Participants of former pharmacy courses were enrolled in the second and third year, as well as those who have had enough pharmaceutical training, but failed the exam on the degree of pharmacist. Overall, 42 people were enrolled in the second and third year.
Organization of Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Institute became the model for the opening of pharmaceutical institutions in Kiev, Vinnitsa, Dnepropetrovsk. After the reunification of the western regions of Ukraine and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Pharmaceutical Department of the Medical Faculty of the Lviv University was transformed into the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Lviv Medical Institute.
In connection with the so-called “unification of pharmaceutical education” (1924), the appropriateness of the existence of higher pharmaceutical institutions has been questioned. By the Decree of Ukrgolovprofos Institute was closed. Acedemic teaching staff was transferred to Kharkiv Pharmaceutical College (existed since 1922). In 1924, College underwent significant changes due to the new concept of pharmaceutical education, which the government started to implement and gave colleges the role of basic training centers of pharmaceutical staff.
Since 1930, College received the status of Institute. By Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR (1936) there was officially approved the existence of 9 pharmaceutical Institutes, including Kharkiv Institute. Educational process was carried out on the workers’ faculty, the correspondence and the evening departments. In 1932, 426 people were trained at KhPhI.
The authority of Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Institute grew, it held increasingly prominent position in the world of pharmaceutical science. No wonder that it is the Kharkiv delegation (Prof. M.O. Valiashko, Prof. A.D. Rozenfeld, Prof. Yu.V. Korshun and others), which participated in the work of the National Conference on Pharmaceutical Education, was assigned to develop the training program for pharmaceutical HEIs in 1932.
In 1937, the All-Union Committee of Higher School gave the Scientific Council of the Institute the right to confer the degree of Candidate of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In the prewar period, KhPhI prepared 1,379 specialists, there were defended 40 dissertations and researched 40 scientific topics.
Institute during the Great Patriotic War
In the early autumn of 1941, government ordered to evacuate industrial, educational, scientific objects from the city because of the occupation of Ukraine and approach of the war to Kharkiv. The vast majority of the valuable equipment of Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Institute was evacuated to Prokopievsk (Novosibirsk region), and faculty members went to Semipalatynsk (Kazakh SSR), where they started industrial training process. Thus, KhPhI employees organized on the basis of the laboratory of pharmacy board production of medicines for hospitals: anesthetic ether, hexamine, sodium chloride, potassium iodide, camphor oil, etc., and in September 1942, together with Dnepropetrovsk Pharmaceutical Institute, which also arrived in the evacuation in Semipalatinsk, KhPhI began training sessions.
In 1944, Institute was reevacuated to Kharkiv, Departments’ staff together with students for a long time themselves eliminated the consequences of huge losses caused to the Institute facilities. In December 1945, there was a significant event for KhPhI – the first postwar graduation. 50 graduates received diplomas of higher education institution, four of them – with honors, 30 – with grade point average “excellent” and “good.”
Development of KhPhI in 1950-80
In KhPhI in 1950-60, was created a powerful educational and scientific potential, was strengthened material and technical base, carried out active scientific work. In 1952, there was established military Faculty of Pharmacy (organizer – colonel V.G. Chornobryvyi) at the Institute by Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, that established tradition of military training of pharmacists. During the six years of its existence the Faculty prepared about 400 specialists for the armed forces of the country. In 1954, there was introduced a new curriculum with a training period of five years.
It is KhPhI that was honored to welcome within its walls delegates of the I Congress of Pharmacists of Ukraine, which was held on April 3-5, 1963. Forum summarized the activities and outlined promising tasks of pharmaceutical science and industry.
In accordance with the order of the USSR Ministry of Health from November 2, 1972 “On improvement of teaching and methodological work in medical higher education institutions”, there was created five cyclic methodical commissions in the institute: pharmaceutical, chemical, physical, biomedical, social disciplines, Russian language and foreign languages.
In 1973, KhPhI started to work by a new curriculum, which included 15 weeks of specialization in the 10th semester: pharmacist-organizer, pharmacist-analyst, manufacturing pharmacist. Since 1965, KhPhI begins to prepare qualified pharmacists for foreign countries, and since 1974, there was opened the Faculty for Foreign Citizens’ Education.
1976 was a record year since the establishment of KhPhI by the number of scientific papers produced in one year. In the same year, the Scientific Council was granted the right to conduct doctoral dissertations defense. The ІІІ Congress of Pharmacists of Ukraine (1979.) was held within the walls of the educational institution.
Evidence of the high level of scientific research of KhPhI is the fact that the Republican study committee, which previously worked in Kiev at the Institution of Further Training of doctors started to work at the Institute in 1977. Educational and scientific potential of the Institute was actively developing and material base was strengthening. In 1981, it was the first in the USSR Institute adopted a new curriculum, which greatly expanded the proportion of medical and biological disciplines. In 1984, there was opened the Institute of Pharmacy Professionals Qualification Improvement in KhPhI.
In 1992, KhPhI was reorganized into Ukrainian Pharmaceutical Academy (UkrPhA), which received the highest IV level of accreditation in 1994.
In 1999, the educational institution got the status of the National Pharmaceutical Academy of Ukraine, in 2002 – National University of Pharmacy (NUPh).
1980: V.P. Chernykh – Rector of KhPhI
V.P. Chernykh had come a long way from a student, postgraduate student, teaching assistant, associate professor, professor, head of the Department, Dean, Vice-Rector for academic affairs to the Rector of the National University of Pharmacy, which he heads since 1980.
Today, the University community numbers over 20,000 employees and students. Under the leadership of outstanding organizer, Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Institute, which had 1,600 students in one specialty “Pharmacy” with 6 Doctors and 73 Candidates of Sciences, grew up into a unique research and educational center – National University of Pharmacy, where today 17,500 students study in 14 specialties, and work 120 Doctors and 500 Candidates of Sciences, whose average age is 45, carry out research and teaching activities. Considerable contribution in the formation and development of the NUPh was made by: A.O. Arkusha, O.G. Bashura, P.O. Bezuglyi, A.I. Berezniakova, V.V. Bolotov, V.S. Bondar, L.M. Vinnik, L.I. Vyshnevska, L.M. Voronina, N.B. Gavrysh, V.A. Georgiyants, Ye.V. Gladukh, V.I. Grydasov, I.S. Grytsenko, V.G. Demianenko, I.L. Dykyi, D.I. Dmytriievskyi, S.M. Drogovoz, N.F. Durasova, A.L. Zagaiko, G.V. Zaichenko, I.A. Zupanets, K.A. Ivanova, V.I. Kabachnyi, L.G. Kaidalova, L.M. Kantsedal, V.S. Kyslychenko, L.M. Kovalenko, S.M. Kovalenko, V.M. Kovalev, N.M. Kononenko, O.M. Kotenko, A.A. Kotvitska, T.V. Krutskykh, Ye.Ya. Levitin, V.V. Malyi, L.M. Maloshtan, O.I. Naboka, A.S. Nemchenko, S.V. Ogar, O.I. Pavlii, P.D. Pashniev, I.M. Pertsev, O.F. Piminov, S.B. Popov, O.V. Posylkina, Z.F. Podstrielova, T.S. Prokopenko, O.A. Ruban, B.A. Samura, Ye.I. Svitlychna, A.G. Serbin, L.S. Strelnikov, V.O. Timaniuk, O.I. Tikhonov, V.M. Tolochko, T.A. Khokhlova, T.P. Khursal, V.I. Chuieshov, S.Yu. Shtrygol, L.A. Shemchuk, L.V. Yakovleva, T.G. Yarnykh and other faculty members and university employees.
On the 75th anniversary of the famous scientist, educator, public figure
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In 1991, Kharkov Pharmaceutical Institute was among the top 900 Ukrainian HEIs that was accredited on the state level. In 1999, it acquired national status among the top five universities in Ukraine and became the second national university in Kharkiv.
Staff “breakthrough” was made at the NUPh under the leadership of V.P. Chernykh: there have been trained more than 130 Doctors and 650 Candidates of Sciences since1980. NUPh has one of the highest indexes of the quality of scientific and educational potential – 94%, among the top 200 universities in Ukraine according to the UNESCO rating. There were opened at the NUPh over the past 15 years: 13 new specialties, Institute of Pharmacy Professionals Qualification Improvement and College. Throughout the whole period of his leadership of V.P. Chernykh, there was ensured stable financial position of the university, effective system of social protection of employees and students at the NUPh. Today, NUPh occupies leading positions in Ukraine; in the national ranking it takes the 2nd place among 18 medical universities and the 3rd among Kharkiv universities, and is the leader of pharmaceutical education among the educational institutions of the CIS countries. NUPh was awarded by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for considerable contribution to the development of medical and pharmaceutical science and education. This is European level University, recognized in the world, which is the member of international pharmaceutical and educational associations. In 2013, NUPh joined the Magna Charta Universitatum. It is a specialized higher education institution that provides comprehensive training of the high quality specialists in all areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Over 50,000 professionals, including more than 6,000 Masters of Pharmacy for 96 countries received higher pharmaceutical education in its lecture halls. Training of the specialists for foreign countries – is a significant factor in the increasing of the international image of our country and our education.
In order to implement the state industry staff assistance policy, V.P. Chernykh proposed “on the ground” system of training by opening a network of 20 pharmaceutical faculties at the medical universities, providing them with scientific and teaching staff, methodological and teaching materials. University trains scientific-pedagogical staff for pharmaceutical faculties, practical pharmacy in Ukraine and abroad.
For the first time in the system of pharmaceutical education in Ukraine, there were created educational-methodical complexes of study materials in all disciplines of more than 2 thousand items. The educational process is provided by 100% with educational and methodological materials in official and foreign languages, which are used by all the pharmaceutical faculties in Ukraine and some CIS countries. Scientific heritage of the University – more than 490 textbooks and study guides, 300 monographs, over 1,500 titles of protection for inventions. The NUPh scientists developed and introduced into production 261 new medicines.
V.P. Chernykh – initiator and one of the authors of the development concept of the pharmaceutical industry and education of Ukraine, extension of the range of specialties for the pharmaceutical industry; founder of the newest direction in pharmacy: pharmaceutical care of patients, quality control system of medicines, including implementation of bioequivalence on the principles of good clinical practice in accordance with international requirements.
On the initiative and with the direct participation V.P. Chernykh in order to increase prestige and recognition of the pharmaceutical industry at the state level in Ukraine, there was established a professional holiday – Day of pharmaceutical worker (1999) and a new state award – honorary title “Honored Worker of Pharmacy of Ukraine” (2005), adopted the Code of Ethics of the pharmaceutical worker of Ukraine (2010), created the world’s first Pharmaceutical encyclopedia (First Edition – 2005, second – 2010). Under the direct supervision of V.P. Chernykh, cultural treasury of Kharkiv region is enriched with a unique sculptural composition “Pharmacy in centuries”, the first in the world monument to pharmacist. V.P. Chernykh became the ideologist of the industry strengthening and organizer of the V, VI and VII National Conventions of Pharmacists of Ukraine at the University, and creation of All-Ukrainian Association of Pharmacists.
V.P. Chernykh is an outstanding scientist in the field of organic chemistry, whose works are well known to the scientific community in Ukraine and abroad; he is the author of 1260 scientific publications, including the textbook “Organic Chemistry” in 3 volumes, which was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology in 2000, and the first textbook for higher pharmaceutical education in Ukraine. There was founded a new scientific direction – synthesis of biologically active substances – derivatives of dicarboxylic acids, creation of various heterocyclic structures on their basis and research of the cyclization routes of polyfunctional reagents in the ensemble of heterocycles. Novelty and priority of researches is confirmed by 126 patents of Ukraine and Russia, 341 certificates of authorship. More than 40 years are given to the preparation of Doctors and Candidates for higher education and practical pharmacy; there was established national school of synthetic chemists, in which scientists trained more than 60 Doctors and Candidates of Sciences, and (individually and together with students) created 16 medicines.
In 1997, Professor V.P. Chernykh was elected a corresponding member of NAS of Ukraine according to the results of long-term research in the field of the synthesis of biologically active substances. In the history of pharmacy of Ukraine this event was the first example of representation of pharmacy in the academic science. In 2013, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine awarded V.P. Chernykh a badge of honour of NAS for scientific achievements.
V.P. Chernykh is a well known statesman and public figure, initiator of the publication of 7 VAK (Higher Attestation Commission) scientific journals of Ukraine. For 30 years, he worked in the Expert Councils of the USSR and Ukrainian VAK. He currently heads Republican Problem Commission “Pharmacy” of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine; he is the chairman of Scientific-Methodical Commission on Pharmacy of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, member of the Scientific Council of the State Enterprise “State Pharmacological Centre” of the MPH of Ukraine, member of the Presidium of the Pharmacopoeia Committee of the MPH of Ukraine, member of the Academic Medical Council of the MPH of Ukraine, member of the agency of the State Pharmacological Center on registration of medicinal products and medicinal drugs, member of the subdivision of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Committee on State Prizes in Science and Technology, member of the board of State Inspectorate for Quality Control of Drugs of the MPH of Ukraine.
V.P. Chernykh is Vice-President of the All-Ukrainian Association of Pharmacists of Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Association. He was elected deputy of the Kiev District Council of People’s Deputies of Kharkiv (1986) and City Council of People’s Deputies (1985-1987). In 1999, International Biographical Center and American Biographical Institute recognized V.P. Chernykh one of the 500 most influential and prominent scientists in the world. He performs active international and educational activities.
Fruitful work and outstanding achievements of the famous scientist, educator, organizer, statesman and public figure were repeatedly noted by the state: he was awarded the Order “Badge of Honor”, “Red Banner of Labor”, Order of Ukraine “For Merit” of I, II, III degrees, Prince Yaroslav the Wise of IV and V degrees, Diploma of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, honorary certificates and merit badges of the MPH and MES of Ukraine, “Excellent worker of healthcare”, “Excellence worker of education of Ukraine”, “Inventor of the USSR”, “Petro Mohyla”, badge of merit of Kharkiv Regional State Administration “Sloboda glory” (“Slobodskaia slava”), honorary titles “Honored Inventor of the USSR”, “Honored worker of Science and Technology of the UkrSSR.” Kharkiv community elected V.P. Chernykh the honorary citizen of Kharkiv.
Scientific-pedagogical and academic community, staff and students of the National University of Pharmacy, colleagues, friends, students heartily congratulate the famous scientist, talented educator, outstanding organizer and reformer of higher pharmaceutical education, tireless enthusiast and patriot of the pharmacy, who is a perfect example of devotional service to the interests of education, science, health, to the interests of our glorious Ukraine.
We wish you, Valentyn Petrovych, new achievements and starts, inexhaustible creative inspiration and longevity.